Result

Utilisation

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Overall result:

Utilisation: **%**

Please note: This assessment doesn't include a structural assessment of the wall itself.

Excavation depth
m

Depth > 7m not recommended. Check that base is within soil and above toe.

Base thickness
m

Max thickness of 3m & check that soil is deep enough.

Wall thickness
m

Max thickness of 3m.

Base length (inside)
m

Enter a thickness between 0 & 5m.

Base length (outside)
m

Enter a thickness between 0 & 5m.

Surcharge
kPa

Enter a number between 0 and 150.

Water table depth
m

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Result:

Utilisation:

Base weight
kN/m

Base lever arm
m

Wall lever arm
m

Wall weight
kN/m

Stabilising soil lever arm
m

Stabilising soil weight
kN/m

Stabilising moment
kNm/m

Avg. active soil force
kN/m

Destabilising lever arm
m

Destabil. moment
kNm/m

Checked in accordance with Eurocode Design Approach 1 Combination 1

Result:

Utilisation:

Vertical force on base
kN/m

Coefficient of friction
^{o}

Horizontal resistance
kN/m

Avg. active soil force
kN/m

Checked in accordance with Eurocode Design Approach 1 Combination 1

Result:

Utilisation:

Moment about heel
kNm/m

Total vertical force
kN/m

Lever arm about heel
m

Avg bearing pressure
kPa

Max bearing pressure
kPa

Min bearing pressure
kPa

Bearing resistance
kPa

Worst case check found to be Eurocode 7

Excavations and retaining walls are used to support earth pressure and create a cavity below the natural ground level. Retaining walls come in a wide range of shapes sizes and materials, retaining walls can include three components:

- Stem
- Toe slab
- Heel slab

Some walls may also include a sheer key to resist sliding

Stems can include drainage holes, these reduce the water pressure acting directly on the wall. A drain pipe can also be provided along the back of the wall for a similar effect. Coarse aggregate can be added along the back of the wall, this allows water to flow down to the drainpipe. The wall surface in contact with the soil is typically treated with some form of waterproofing.

Gravity walls: These walls resist earth pressure via the self weight of the wall alone, typically these walls are constructed from stone masonry.

Cantilever walls: This is the most common type of retaining wall, these walls are typically used up to a depth of 8 metres below ground level. For this wall type the stem toe and heel act as one-way cantilever slabs. The stem acts as a vertical cantilever under the lateral earth pressure. The heel acts as a horizontal cantilever under the action of net weight of retained earth. The toe acts as a horizontal cantilever under the action of net soil pressure.

We first need to calculate the active and passive earth pressure with the following calculations:

- P
_{a}= ½ * K_{a}γ * H^{2} - P
_{a}= ½ * K_{p}γ * H^{2}

Where k_{a} is the active earth pressure coefficient, k_{p} is the passive earth pressure coefficient, H is the depth of the excavation and γ is the unit weight of the soil.

The active earth pressure coefficient, k_{a} is calculated as follows:

- k
_{a}= tan^{2}(45-ϕ/2)

The passive earth pressure coefficient, k_{p} is calculated as follows:

- k
_{p}= tan^{2}(45+ϕ/2)

Where ϕ is the angle of friction or angle of repose for the soil.

Horizontal forces acting on the active side of the wall are calculated using the earth pressures calculated above.

Moments are resolved as stabilising and destabilising moments acting on the surfaces of the wall. If an overhang of the retaining wall base exists then the stabilising force of soil self weight above this overhang can be considered.

Passive forces acting on the wall can be calculated as stabilising forces or moments, however some movement of the wall is required to fully mobilise these forces and therefore it is conservative to exclude the benefit of passive forces from the calculation.

The presence of an additional surcharge should be considered. This surcharge contributes to active earth pressure, the nature of the surcharge can for example result from vehicles or construction operations.

Select dropdown estimates for geological properties from our geotechnical database or enter your own properties. Estimated properties are for feasibility study only.